This conference will explore the inherent limitations of using group data to guide treatment decisions for individuals. Topics will include examining HTE as it pertains to personalized decision making and precision medicine, modifying care in light of more personalized evidence, and identifying the highest policy and research priorities to facilitate translation and dissemination of these methods. This conference will take a broad view of personalized/precision medicine that seeks to take into account the full gamut of patient-level variation (i.e. not just genetic/pharmacogenetic variation). Conference participants will include thought leaders and stakeholders who are developing and promulgating methods for more individualized evidence from academic, government and regulatory sectors.